gallic war book 7 summary

Furthermore, he had not left them a commander because he did not want to risk someone else's enthusiasm launching them all into an impromptu battle with the Romans. He pauses for two days, then leaves his army and pretends to be out seeing to further inductions. Vercingetorix decides that it is time to lead his men back inside the fortifications and the day ends. The Aedui, Rome's allies, came to Caesar with their political problem: their tribe was led by a king who held power for a year, but this year there were two contenders, Cotus and Convitolitanis. As quickly as possible the tribunes of the Seventh Legion bring their troops around to Camulogenus' rear, but even so he refuses to back up. Now, however, Eporedorix reports Litaviccus' plans to Caesar and begs that he not allow the plots of these young traitors to destroy the friendship between Rome and the Aeduans. Noviodunum is an Aeduan town, well situated on the banks of the Loire. The Bituriges, for example, would have remained on Caesar's side had not the Adenans failed to help them. Camulogenus therefore splits his army into three parts; a guard is left opposite the Roman camp, a small group goes upstream as far as the smaller boats; the rest go against Labienus. Fabius expects another attack on the following day. The Gauls then break rank and retreat with heavy losses. His forces grow rapidly. The Gauls decide against gathering together all men available, for that would strain the food supply and also create a force difficult to discipline. The natives of Transalpine Gaul, meanwhile, hear of his decision and spread rumors that the general is detained in Rome and cannot join his army. Vercingetorix, meanwhile, situates his army along a ridge near the town. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. Seeing that mighty Caesar is victorious, they seize those whom they think roused them to battle and bring them to Caesar, pleading for his acceptance of their surrender. There is much confusion, but as always Caesar has two legions in the bivouac ready for such emergencies and he also has the construction relief crews, if need arises. At the signal, the Roman troops quickly cross the wall and take three camps. Caesar, surveying the remains of the battle, finds that almost 700 Romans are missing. The allies were appeased and supplied Vercingetorix with replacement troops for those he had lost. Vercingetorix then brings forward Roman prisoners whom he has tortured and who, he believes, will support his theories. When Eporedorix reports the events to Caesar, the general realizes that it is not necessary to fight the Aedui. Caesar spared them and marched back towards Gergovia. The Helvii attempt to fight the enemy but are finally conquered and their chief, Gaius Valerius Donnotaurus is killed. These he sets under the command of Eporedorix' brother, and sends them to fight the Allobroges. bookmarked pages associated with this title. They next find a safe camp and send for the remainder of the army. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. Next day the Roman general calls a parade and reprimands the troops for failing to obey orders; he describes the disadvantages of being positioned on unfavorable ground and, although he admires their courage, he stresses that bravery does not substitute for discipline and self-restraint. Caesar decided against Cotus and in favor of Convitolitanis. Then he repairs the bridge the enemy had earlier cut down and marches to Lutetia. The enemy are quickly put to flight and the Germans pursue them all the way to their wall. The two armies thus move in parallel columns down opposite sides of the river. 7.06-10 Sight Reading With the Professor. I.--Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for ... begin to organize their plans for war more openly and daringly. Women climb atop the wall and with bared breasts plead for mercy, for they have heard that the women and children at Avaricum were killed. Caesar knows that the enemy has superior cavalry and that he cannot get help from the province or Italy, so he sends for cavalry and infantry from the German tribes with whom he has made peace. No longer are the residents of Noviodunum as fearful of the Romans; they take up arms again and try to close their gates; manning their walls at the same time, they hope to reclaim their city from the Roman invaders. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). Caesar obliges, then moves on toward Avaricurn, the largest and best fortified of the Bituriges' towns. And Caesar quite deliberately presents him in this way because if Vercingetorix is shown to be a superior leader; then Caesar's success against him is even more impressive. The Aedui which Caesar had sent out earlier appears on the Romans' right flank and the Romans mistake them for enemy troops. The capture is so fast that Teutomatus, king of the Nitiobriges, barely escapes. Caesar ordered their weapons, horses, and hostages. He then urges the Aedui to forget all disputes and concentrate on the war. The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battleagainst a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. Hearing that Caesar is cutting a bloody path toward him, Vercingetorix leaves the attack against the Boii and turns to meet the Romans. This quality is also observe4 when he gives the German horsemen the mounts his men have been using; he wants the Germans to have the best horses available. They try to undermine the ramp and set it afire, and attempt to kill the soldiers doing the building. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. In the meantime, he instructs the men behind the mantlets to prepare themselves. Many of Caesar's troops did not hear when he called for a retreat. At the beginning of the book, there is a section called The Life of Caesar. But Caesar plans one more conquest before dealing with Vercingetorix. Then, to insure more than verbal agreement from them, Vercingetorix orders that hostages, soldiers, and weapons be delivered to him; his command is most strict and non-compliers are mutilated or killed. These people go to the Roman lines and beg to be taken in as slaves, but Caesar refuses to admit them. Thus one of the most difficult problems facing Caesar is the ease with which one ambitious or dissatisfied local politician can incite an otherwise peaceful state to rebellion. Caesar then notices that the hill opposite his forces is undefended and learns from enemy deserters that Vercingetorix has pulled the defenders off that area in order to fortify another hill, the loss of which would cut off his troops from escape and forage. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. He headed towards Gergovia, providing protection for some Roman citizens on the way. Caesar, mean-while, prepares to attack the town with a ramp and towers. The Romans kill great numbers Then, suddenly, the enemy is aware that the Roman cavalry has come up behind them, so they try to run, but the cavalry kills great numbers. Especially during the winter when there was little to forage, having food could decide the outcome of a battle. So, just after midnight, Caesar sends his cavalry there with instructions to be extra noisy in their movements. Having advanced into the country of the Nitiobriges, and Gabali, he receives hostages from both nations, and, assembling a numerous force, marches to make a descent on the province in the direction of Narbo. And, next day, as a heavy rain drenches his legions, he observes that the guard on the wall is less than usual. Only Caesar can settle the dispute. In charge are Commius, Viridomarus, Eporedorix, and Vercassivellaunus. Vercingetorix marched his troops there in order to defend his people. He merely points out, before letting them ride away, all that he has done for them and their people. They burned the town so the Romans couldn't feed themselves from it and began to build up armed garrisons around the river. It should be noted, however, that not all the tribes revolt freely. Lucius Fabius and his three men are killed and thrown from the wall. Still, their number is vast — almost 300,000 troops are requisitioned. Lucterius, meanwhile, unites the Ruteni with the Arverni, then brings the Nitiobriges and the Gabali into the alliance. Caesar sees that his men are fighting with the odds against them and sends a message to Titus Sextius, who has been left to guard the smaller camp. Vercassivellaunus, commander of the forces, hides the men behind the hill just before dawn and at noon he moves against the Roman camp. The Romans seized this opportunity and moved closer to the city. The Aeduans who have not heard that Litaviccus was a traitor act on his first advice and, according to the initial plans, plunder and kill many Roman citizens in their midst and enslave many others. Satisfied with his strategy, Caesar orders that the retreat be sounded. Vercingetorix had used the Roman system of demanding hostages to ensure loyalty and ordered a levy of troops from each of these groups. The enemy is surprised at Caesar's determined efforts and are totally confused. One side faces the town, the other protects the Roman rear. He tells his men to leave, that he cannot save himself, but perhaps he can save them. Later Vercingetorix would be displayed as a prize in Caesar's triumph of 46 B.C. The Romans finally had success with a sudden attack, which frightened many of the Gauls into flight. He takes Cenabum by being ready for anything. Finally, ending the day's engagement, Vercingetorix, as the victor, called off the fight for the day when new Roman legions arrived. These men, however, have been instructed by Caesar to say that the Roman army is weakened by hunger and that Caesar has decided to withdraw if he is not successful in three days. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The rumors do just that. Because of this, allied towns that weren't potential enemies at one's back might still be destroyed to make sure the enemy army starved or retreated. It is a first hand account of the final titanic struggle between two nations, one fighting for … Vercingetorix broke down all bridges over the river, but this proved only a temporary set-back for the Romans. They also build up the scaffolding on their walls to keep it on a level with the Roman turrets. The law is clear and there is no justification for Cotus' attempt to have the office. This could have been done, but another problem would have presented itself: he would have had to station troops on the other side of the hill to protect that part of the entrenchment, thinning both the ranks facing the city, and those facing the enemy force. As a final measure, any town not secure enough to defend itself is to be burnt. They are to take the baggage with them and make much noise. Vercingetorix' followers are less trusting and accuse their leader of treachery; he moved their camps near the Romans, then went off with the cavalry and left the camp without a commander. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix' ambassador, Lucterius, continued to gain allies. The text indexing is from the printed book, and may or may not match that found in the Loeb's Classical Library. They are so confused, in fact, that after they find themselves in trouble, they are unable to recognize the friendly Aeduan forces that come to help them. Between such arguments and bribes made to the Aedui by the allies of Vercingetorix, the Aedui were convinced. Wary of sudden attack, though, Caesar explains to his men that the enemy has an advantage of position and, rather than appear rash, he moves the troops back to camp and prepares for the siege of the town. Vercingetorix and Caesar are the main figures in Book VII of De Bello Gallico, Caesar's narrative about his wars in Gaul, although the Roman allies, the Aedui, also play a large role. The battle at Alesia is perhaps the most involved of all battles described in the Gallic Wars. There he receives intelligence of the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate, [to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province. The Gauls under Camulogenus were tricked by his maneuvers and then defeated in a battle where Camulogenus was slain. Vercingetorix assembles many of his troops about ten miles from the Romans, then tells his commanders that the Romans are fleeing, but that they will return and says that they must attack them en route and shame them by taking their equipment. Caesar secures his baggage on a hill, then leaves two legions to guard it while he takes the rest of the army in pursuit. The fortifications were not just a means to contain those within. They report that Litaviccus has gone with his cavalry to incite the Aedui and say that they must go and try to get ahead of him so that they can maintain the loyalty of the Aeduan people. Caesar feels the skirmishes have reestablished his troops' confidence and so moves camp to the territory of the Aedui. Caesars Gallic War also had a very intense study on Caesars military campaigns, and the art of war. Caesar hears of the attacks and, because the difficulties in Rome are solved, he heads for Transalpine Gaul. Because of the darkness, it is hard to tell how much damage is being done, but many men are injured and killed. The Romans needed some to gather timber and food. Caesar learns that Vercingetorix has moved nearer Avaricum because he is out of forage and that he plans an ambush for the next day. He relented, reluctantly. Many, of course, do not freely join the rebellion, but are drawn in by political intrigues of various kinds; even the usually faithful Aedui turn against Rome. Sizable units captured include Cotus and other generals, including Cavarillus and Eporedorix. He reminds them that there will be reward once it is over. Caesar's Gallic Wars Book One By: David Brown Caesar destroys the quarter of the Helvetian force by surprising them while they are crossing a river Ceasar's legions finally meet the Helvetians in an open battle on a mountain in the Aedui territory. Caesar dismissed two important Aeduans, Viridomarus and Eporedorix, who went to the Aeduan town of Noviodunum on the Loire, where they learned that further negotiations were being made between the Aeduans and the Arvernians. They encounter some difficulty, however, and Caesar is forced to send 400 German horsemen as support. The wily leader and his dependents escape, however, before they can be dealt with. Later, he marches downstream with his other three legions and goes to meet the boats. He is between two enemy forces and knows that his role can shift from attacker to defender if things do not go well, so he must be especially crafty and thus, to make sure an enemy attack cannot reach his lines too quickly, he takes the added precaution of planting traps outside his trench. Many were killed but they still did not stop. The Gauls from outside attacked at night by throwing things from a distance and alerting Vercingetorix to their presence. When the Germans started to kill the Averni, they fled. Vercingetorix sent out mounted troops to go to their tribes to round up all those old enough to bear arms. With great effort, Caesar's troops arrive in camp before sunrise. Vercingetorix is notified of Caesar's plans and destroys all bridges along the river Allier, which forms the line of Caesar's march. Caesar and his contemporaries makes impossible claims about the number of Gauls killed (over a million), while claiming almost zero Roman casualties. But, in spite of the Gallic counter-measures, the Romans manage within 25 days to build a ramp 330 feet wide and 80 feet high. Thus he soon raises a large army and sends Lucterius with a part of his army to the land of the Ruteni; the others he takes to battle against the Bituriges. In it, Caesar has placed all the Gallic hostages, his grain, his money, most of his army's equipment, and many horses that have been purchased in Spain and Italy. The enemy fights with new hope because they see burning the Roman turrets that once gave cover to the working parties. Because of this, there were skirmishes, although Vercingetorix was waiting for Gallic allies to join him before a full-fledged fight against Caesar's army. Literature Network » Julius Caesar » The Gallic Wars » Book VII. This is one of the rare occasions in which one of Caesar's own camps has a deficiency in its construction. If he keeps his legions in one place, defections mount and soon all Gaul will revolt as it becomes apparent that Rome is powerless to stop the rebellions. He has Eporedorix and Viridomarus move up with the horsemen so that their people will see that they have not been murdered. He then asked the Aedui to send him all their cavalry plus 10,000 infantry. Caesar reaches Gergovia in five days. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Vercingetorix, son of the former Gallic chieftain, arouses his men to assemble and is soon joined by many other adventurers and soldiers. If they wish, he continues, they can take back the title of king they have given him, but he asks them to consider whether or not they have profited from his leadership. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which is the main source for the conflict but is considered to be unreliable at best by modern historians. To deal with Vercingetorix' attack against the Allobroges, Caesar sent for cavalry and light-armed infantry help from the Germanic tribes beyond the Rhine. The Gauls hope to survive only because they have the cooperation of the local tribes. Analysis Of Julius Caesar 's ' The Gallic War ' 1070 Words 5 Pages Critique Essay In this critique of Julius Caesar’s book, The Gallic War, I will be discussing the purpose and accuracy (or in this case, inaccuracy) over his adventures and military campaign against the Gallic tribes. They too have an able intelligence staff and have learned of Caesar's approach and have hidden the wagons and baggage in nearby dense woods. The particular course takes up the passages required by the AP exam from Caesar's Gallic Wars. Thus, after his lecture, he compliments them equally on their bravery and lets them fight a few minor battles to regain their confidence. Book VII. Many of Caesar's enemies were slaughtered, Vercingetorix' cavalry was routed, and some of the tribal leaders were captured. They cannot manage entry through their small gate openings and many are killed by the German swordsmen. Caesar followed, killing those he could. This particular edition is in a Hardcover format. Caesar is most deserving of the twenty-day thanksgiving proclaimed by the senate. This inspired the people of Noviodunum to take up arms and shut the gates, backing down from their surrender. They pledge safe passage to Marcus Aristius, saying that he may leave the town of Cabillonum, and that the traders who had settled there must also go, but as soon as they start out, the Aedui attack and take all equipment and baggage, then blockade them for a day and a night. 1 Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls [54 B.C. The Gallic Wars In 58 BCE, Caesar headed for Gaul, a region roughly encompassing present-day France and Belgium and parts of the Netherlands. The town is on a great height and is difficult to approach, so he knows he cannot take it by storm. Labienus, meanwhile, leaves the new recruits at Agedincum to guard the equipment and moves his four legions to Lutetia (Paris), but is pitted against Camulogenus, an old but superior soldier. The Gauls are overjoyed for it seems that their cavalry is sure to win. The Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. This period of revolt follows the earlier Gallic battles at Bibracte, Vosges, and Sabis. Trust is reestablished and his men praise him for such loyalty and intelligence. He pushes his troops until they see the column of Aedui, then sends the cavalry ahead to stop them and orders that there be no killing. The Arvernian allies sent fewer than asked, but still, a great number of troops, to Alesia where they believed the Romans would easily be defeated by the Gallic troops on two fronts, from within Alesia and from those newly arriving. Noviodunum ambassadors begged Caesar to pardon them and spare them. The Arverni and allies divided into three groups to attack. On the other hand, he does not want to attempt a blockade until he secures his own grain supply. Caesar's very competent legate, Labienus, found himself surrounded by two newly rebelling groups and so needed to move out his troops by stealth. The Romans are not cavalrymen and the Gauls still with Caesar are no good at cavalry fighting, thus this thoughtfulness is rewarded later when the cavalry is responsible for the breakdown of the enemy forces at Alesia. He seems, at times, to be almost unduly humane. When Eporedorix and Viridomarus arrive, they find ruins. Verciugetorix' retreat troubles Caesar. They spread their horsemen and footmen over the plain before the town. 7 In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. Each morning, he meets with the various chiefs in council, then exercises the troops. All of Caesar's skills — being prepared, moving quickly, and taking advantage — are more important in this book than anywhere else; this widespread Gallic rebellion is his greatest challenge. Caesar split his army and gave Labienus 4 legions to lead north, towards the Senones and Parisii while he led 6 legions into Arverni country towards Gergovia, which was on the banks of the Allier. Caesar informs the Aeduan state that he might easily have put the column to death, but that he chose to show mercy. If a property lacked a good defense it would be burned. While Caesar's men went into town to gather up the arms and horses, Vercingetorix' army appeared on the horizon. Meanwhile, Vercingetorix had thousands of cavalry from the Aedui and Segusiani. Moving quickly by night, the Roman general reaches the enemy's camp by morning, but he is unable to take it by surprise. Caesar then marched to Avaricum, a well-fortified town in the Biturgies' territory. Then, by forced marches, Caesar gets to Vienne and with the cavalry he had sent there, he continues marching day and night straight through the lands of the Aedui into the Lingones, where two legions are in their winter quarters. The next day, the Gauls attacked from both sides. This move prompted Vercingetorix to stop his siege of Gergovia. "Caesar's Commentaries in Latin : Books I-iv, Paperback by Caesar, Julius; Thomas, Tom, ISBN 1453887954, ISBN-13 9781453887950, Brand New, Free shipping Julius Caesar's own words about his conquest of Gaul and other historic events. From there, Caesar sent word to the other legions of the danger presented by Vercingetorix, ordering them to come to his assistance ASAP. Tribes which Caesar has fought earlier, and many with whom he has been at peace, combine and try their luck against the mighty Roman general. - Caesar, Crassus and Pompey and The First Triumvirate, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. The Bellovaci, who intend to fight the Romans themselves, do not make up their quota of 10,000 but because of their regard for Commius they do send 2,000. Title. Hostages that were taken from the Romans are used as leverage to get other states to join the conspiracy; many hostages even are executed to increase the pressure on reluctant states. About Caesar: Gallic War VI. The break in the narrative seems necessary and not simply a whim of the writer: Caesar must stop the war to settle the childish dispute among the Aedui. As he suspected, just before midnight, the men of the town begin to slip away. The Gauls, thirsting for victory, sweep closer to the Roman lines and, in the darkness, fall into the traps Caesar had prepared; others are injured by pikes thrown from the walls. Vercingetorix then set up camp 15 miles from Avaricum and whenever Caesar's men went foraging at a distance, some of Vercingetorix' men attacked them. When Caesar's troops, for instance, capture a strategic hill of the Gauls, they ruin success by being too enthusiastic and charging against orders. During the burning, there is debate concerning the burning of Avaricum — the finest city in all Gaul — and although Vercingetorix strongly believes that it too should be destroyed, he finally yields to the arguments defending the city's survival. Lucius Fabius, a centurion in the Eighth Legion, has sworn to be first to climb the wall and is assisted up by three of his men. Heading towards the Boii, Caesar left two legions at Agendicum. Litaviccus has been received by the Aedui at Bibracte, has been joined by Convictolitavis, and has sent representatives to make a treaty with Vercingetorix. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who … Vercingetorix saw what had happened and gave up, surrendering himself and his weapons. He must also get his army safely to Agedincum. One end of the Roman camp, they discover, leads to a hill so great that the Romans were unable to include it within their entrenchment. As soon as Caesar is informed, he has the town's gates burned and sends in the waiting legions. The Gauls try to escape during the night and reach Vercingetorix' camp but are once again unsuccessful, for the men of the town are given away by the screams and moans of their wives, begging them not to leave. The Romans are indeed in trouble, but the Tenth Legion prevents the Gauls from pursuing the harried soldiers and, when they reach level ground, they turn and face the enemy. When Caesar heard about the alliance, he realized it was a threat, so he left Italy and set out for Transalpine Gaul, a Roman province since 121 B.C., but he didn't have his regular army, although he did have some German cavalry and troops he had in Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar, however, arrives there in two days, before their preparations are complete, but he arrives too late in the day to begin battle, so he camps for the night and posts two legions under arms in case the people try to escape by crossing the Loire. The Bituriges fearfully ask the Aedui for help and the Aedui, on the advice of the Romans, send infantry and cavalry. Caesar's assault position is inside a double ring of fortifications. That night the cavalry goes after the retreating Gauls, catches the rear guard and kills or captures many. He added the Nitiobriges and Gabali and then headed to Narbo, which was in the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, so Caesar headed to Narbo, which made Lucterius retreat. When Caesar heard of these developments he thought he should put down the revolt quickly before the armed force grew too large. Book VII. The next day the allies came closer and many were injured on the Roman fortifications, so they withdrew. Inside the gates of Noviodunum, the people panic. There is, of course, no way of knowing whether they said this because it was true or because of treachery. Caesar's defense is immediate. If victory is to be theirs, Avaricum must be held. By long marches he gets to the Loire and finds a place shallow enough for the troops to wade across, then with the cavalry helping break the force of the river, the entire army gets safely across. The enemy intends to keep the Romans from building bridges to span the river, but Caesar sees the danger in their strategy. And by doing what the enemy had considered impossible, Caesar strikes fear into the enemy. When 8,000 cavalry and 250,000 infantry are collected, the army is organized and officers appointed. He orders the packs piled and the men to ready their weapons. Rumors of Caesar's difficulties spread and Labienus decides his problem is more than merely winning this battle. And, if Caesar moves his legions out too early, there will be difficulty maintaining the grain supply. A date is set for the beginning of their campaign and the meeting is adjourned. When Caesar finally reached Gergovia, he surprised the inhabitants. The two armies pitched their camps on opposite banks and Caesar rebuilds a bridge. Halfway there, messengers from Fabius report that the camp has been attacked by a full force of invaders and that many of the defenders have been wounded. He tried to ally the Biturgies, but they resisted and sent ambassadors to the Aedui for help against Vercingetorix. The Gauls, who have been decoyed to the other side of town, hear the shouting and return to the side where the Romans are attacking. This completed, Caesar builds another set of entrenchments at his rear so that he cannot be surrounded. After many have been kille4 on both sides, the Aedui bring up reinforcements. Some are killed there as they crush through the narrow gates and others are killed by the cavalry waiting outside for them. Then he allows his army a night rest of three hours before moving back to Gergovia. Clearing a roadway through six feet of snow in the Cevennes mountains is a massive feat when one considers that it had to be done by manual labor. Instead a solemn oath is taken. For instance, Caesar made up false facts concerning the characteristics of the Gallic people; apparently, Gallic people were violent and uncivilized, therefore he believed that the only way to domesticate … By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. As promised, Vercingetorix attempts to get the other Gauls to join the war. The townspeople, seeing the slaughter, pull their troops back and had Caesar's soldiers not been so exhausted by the day's battle, they might have destroyed the entire enemy army at that point. Caesar then took some of his men with him and rode to the army of the Aedui and presented to them those very men they thought the Romans had killed. Instead, they continued to fight and try to plunder the city. He fights until all his men, including himself, are annihilated. Naturally they had thought the snow was impenetrable. The Romans put torturous devices on the outside that could injure an army pressing against it. Both sides see that Caesar is coming to Labienus' aid and that he is wearing a flashing scarlet cape; the general has entered the thick of battle. Caesar was afraid that if he didn't arbitrate, one side would turn to Vercingetorix for support of its cause, so he stepped in. Caesar then finds sufficient supplies for his troops and decides first to march toward the Senones. Vercingetorix then led his army to Alesia. After the upbraiding, he reminds them that they should never consider the enemy braver than they simply because the enemy has won a skirmish on unfavorable ground. Caesar meanwhile built towers but could not build a wall around the city, as he would have wished, because it was enclosed by rivers and marshes. The Aedui, as we see when Caesar visits them, are easily confused and led astray, and we are prepared for their irrational attacks on the Romans. He had to figure out how to reach the main forces without putting them in danger. This books publish date is Dec 05, 2017 and it has a suggested retail price of $50.00. The diversion, besides providing relief from the battle scenes, also prepares us for the jealousy within the tribe and figures in the betrayal later. Fires are finally put out and fighting stops. Removing #book# He marched towards Caesar who was beginning a siege of Noviodunum. Commentaries on the Gallic War Gaius Julius CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE) , translated by Thomas Rice HOLMES (1855 - 1933) Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The Gauls are panic-stricken. Caesar sent ahead messages to the Boii to encourage them to resist. While he is gone, he leaves young Brutus in charge with orders to let the cavalry operate as far and wide as possible and says that he will return in three days. Vercingetorix suggested a scorched-earth policy. Caesar sends in the Germans to join his troops, but not before setting legions in front of his camp to prevent a sudden attack. He quickly gets his army together and, though matters are still dangerous, he is able to move with striking effect. One of the appealing elements in the Gallic Wars is inclusion of the many Roman tactical errors. On the other side, Vercingetorix' troops from the town fill the Roman trenches in order to cross over, but this task takes too long and by the time they are ready, they find that their allies on the far side of the Roman camp have already retreated; thus, they too must withdraw. The Aedui ask Vercingetorix to join them to make plans for the war, but insist that they must have supreme command. He further asks the Aedui and the Segusiavi to supply 10,000 infantry and 800 cavalry. They form in wedges in the town's open places, ready to fight when the Romans come down the walls, but the Romans fail to descend. Before responding to this new threat, Vercingetorix called a war council, telling the other leaders that the Romans must be kept from getting provisions. All rights reserved. Then he goes forward to encourage his troops. He stops to consider and camps in a thick wood. Although he clearly had much first-hand contact with Celts, some scholars believe that he also drew upon Posidonius. The Biturgies begged that Vercingetorix not burn their noblest city, Avaricum. By this time the Gauls realized their freedom was at stake and having the Romans around to arbitrate and help them against other invaders meant the loss of freedom and heavy demands in terms of soldiers and supplies. Once more, when the dispatches of Caesar's mighty victories reach Rome, the senate proclaims a public thanksgiving of twenty days. It is little wonder that Caesar is accorded heroic stature, especially after one considers the deeds recorded in this book. 2 - Caesar's Gallic War: Complete Edition, Including Seven Books by Julius Caesar. Caesar, meantime, spends a few days in Avaricum, letting his army feast on the supplies they find there, but before he can formulate battle plans, the Aedui come for help concerning a matter of internal politics. The brothers agree to join the plot and they set to work to plan Caesar's defeat. Caesar ordered them to surrender their weapons and to bring out their cattle and 600 hostages. When they were near Gergovia, Litavicus riled up his troops against the Romans. "The 'Gallic Menace' in Caesar's Propaganda," by Jane F. Gardner Greece & Rome © 1983. 55 B.C. Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# These troops go only as far as the Loire river, stay a few days, then come home and report to the Romans that they fear the Bituriges too greatly to attempt war. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Caesar believes that the most difficult fighting is probably centered on a hill, which permits the enemy to charge down a slope with a great number of troops, so he sends Labienus there with six cohorts. If the Romans moved by chance, he says, then the Gauls may thank fortune, and if they moved because of an informer, the Gauls should thank the informer- now they know how few in number the Romans are and that they are reluctant to fight Vercingetorix. The time is right for his plan: he orders the men at work to slacken their speed. ), Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turones, Aulerci, Lemovice, the Ruteni, and others to his own armed forces. With arrangements made and Trebonius left in charge, Caesar set out for Genabum, a Carnute town that had been preparing to send troops to help Vellaunodum fight, Caesar. Nor do the Treveri attend, for they are too far distant, and are at war with the Germans. The portrait of Vercingetorix is far from that of a villain; he is a professional and recognizes the danger in letting Avaricum stand. News of the slaughter travels quickly — as quickly as the rebels. He allows himself to be bribed by the Arverni and shares the bribe with Litaviccus and his brothers, telling them that the Aedui are the only force preventing the victory of Gaul; if the Aedui join the rebels, the Romans will be beaten. Instead, he simply had Eporedorix and Viridomarus ride out with the troops and let themselves be seen by the Gauls, who immediately return to the Roman side at the sight of the two men. This he did, and after his troops had surprised the Aeduans, they took the food and cattle they found in the fields and then marched off to the territory of the Senones. Vercingetorix was able to calm the other leaders despite all the recent disasters. There, they overcome the enemy scouts and cross the river safely. They obviously think that Caesar will be unable to leave Rome to return to the army and that the army will be ineffectual without him. Summary. Convictolitavis is bribed, but there is the implication that he is largely influenced by a desire for greater power, for even though he is in office because of Roman authority, he says he would prefer that Rome had to come to the Aedui for assistance rather than vice versa. 04:11. [4.1] The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. This seems to be the case with Vercingetorix, and it certainly will be the case later with the Aeduans. Between his legion and their equipment is the Seine. He leaves Gains Fabius in charge of the two legions left to garrison the camp, and orders the arrest of Litaviccus' brothers, but they have fled. Now, grouped together on high ground, they wait. and any corresponding bookmarks? Late one night the Romans see smoke coming from the ramp and realize that the enemy has set it afire from a tunnel. He sends the small boats upstream and instructs them to make much noise also. On the exam, you will be tested on their ability to translate literally, to analyze, and to interpret the text. Just before dawn, however, the enemy gets reports of the Roman movements and decides that the legions are probably crossing in three places. Camulogenus, the leader of the enemy force, commands the group. Caesar's men headed to Gergovia. The Aeduan revolt spreads. By the end of Book VII Caesar has put down the Gallic revolt. While the battle rages, a messenger arrives and reports to the Aedui that their army is in Caesar's power. Next day he keeps two legions hidden and has the rest of his men march out, spacing the intervals so they will appear to the enemy to be the same number of troops as the day before. Knowing that he must fight a major battle before the enemy can assemble larger forces, Caesar moves quickly. Caesar, meanwhile, sets up defensive units on both sides of his entrenchment and sends the cavalry out to fight. On the east the Gauls set up their line. They hope desperately that the Romans will not be able to stay in the area if there is a great scarcity of food or perhaps even better, that the Romans will go far afield and be easy to pick off. His decision seems traitorous, for after Roman defeat, an even brighter future is promised for the Aeduan king. Accordingly, while the winter was not yet ended, having concentrated the four nearest legions, he … He is easily swayed and so is his partner Litaviccus; both of them are ready to believe any rumor. The rest of the enemy forces disperse to their respective states. When he gives the signal to move, he also sends the Aedui under his command up another side of the hill. He moves his forces inside the city to await the new troops from Gaul. The Romans pitched camp and when the townspeople tried to escape at night via a bridge across the Loire River, Caesar's troops took possession of the town, pillaged and burned it, and then headed across the Loire bridge into the Biturgies' territory. Caesar then sends one legion in the same direction, stops it part way, and hides it in the woods. About 800 in Caesar's reckoning escaped to reach Vercingetorix. The town lost a number of men before the town surrendered again. Other groups are sent against other tribes. Finally, Book VII, the longest in Caesar's narrative, describes how, in 52 B.C., Caesar manages to withstand the revolt of fourteen of the Gallic tribes. The enemy hears of his approach, burns the town and all bridges approaching it, and moves to a position across the Seine from Labienus. Caesar then moves to the town of Cenabum, whose inhabitants have heard of the siege of Vellaunodunum and have prepared their garrison. The following is a summary of Book VII of De Bello Gallico, with some explanatory notes. Since the Roman government disapproved of Caesar’s undertakings, his literary aim in the Gallic War is to merely justify his actions of his annexation of Gaul (modern France) to Rome. Caesar finds a place for his command post and sends support to the units in most difficulty, feeling that if they manage to hold off this attack, they will be victors. Pompey and M. Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the sea. The army lay down its arms and submitted themselves. By peaceful means or by attacking, he added troops from the Gallic tribes of the Senones (the tribe connected with the band of Gauls responsible for the sack of Rome in 390 B.C. This is the longest book in the Gallic Wars and it describes the great revolt of most of the Gallic tribes. Book VI of Caesar's description of his campaigns in Gaul deals with events of 53 BC, teh year after his major expedition to Britain. Labienus, because he cannot build a road through the marsh, moves his army back to Metiosedum, where he seizes fifty boats, ties them together to form a bridge and moves his troops so quickly across that Metiosedum is taken without a fight. Caesar is greatly disturbed, for he has always favored the Aedui and he immediately marches four legions out of camp. He then leaves the five cohorts he thinks are least reliable as camp guard and has the other five cohorts in his legion move upstream at midnight. Gallic Wars Book 7 (52 B.C.E.) He takes many troops with him, and when they are about 30 miles from Gergovia he stops them and tells them that many Aeduans have been put to death by the Romans and that, to gain revenge and safety, they must join the Arverni at Gergovia. Caesar, no longer able to do without the rest of his forces, left Brutus in command while he went to Vienna where his cavalry was stationed. Teutomatus, king of the Nitiobriges, whose father Ollovico had been a friend of Rome, joins Vercingetorix and brings with him a large cavalry force, some his own people and others hired from Aquitania.

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